Some of the oldest and most important Croatian Cyrillic monuments are as follows (here we follow [Benedikta Zelic-Bucan] and [Hercigonja]):
|Katarina Vukcic-Kosaca (married King Stephen Thomas of Bosnia)
Death: Oct. 25, 1478
Bosnian Queen Katarina (portrait by Giovanni Bellini, Rome)
Even before Jajce fell, the ABiH appears to have been planning some sort of offensive against the Bosnian Croats in central Bosnia. After October 29, 1992, the increasing numbers of able-bodied military-age Muslim refugees entering the region were organized, armed, and trained for offensive operations; mujahideen, ABiH soldiers, and armed refugees were infiltrated into key villages in groups of three or four men and hidden in Muslim homes or mosques; and by the end of 1992, the ABiH had positioned a number of its combat brigades in key locations throughout the Lasva, Kozica, and Lepenica Valleys.1 In retrospect, the latter actions were particularly significant.
No Bosnian documents from the late 13th and early 14th Century have survived. Ethno-social occurrences from that time period thus stay outside a historian's view, but at the time when Bosnia, under Ban Stjepan II Kotromanic entered a phase of territorial expansion and social growth, the concepts of national consciousness became more complex and with new factors added to the mix. The first item to be noted is the use of the Bosnian name in the 14th and 15th Century. The name is used in Cyrillic documents of medieval Bosnia, in Latin scripts about the "Bosnian church" and the notaries of Dalmatian towns. But in each of those three instances, the Bosnian name pertains to a different group, every one of them is indicating a separate level of national consciousness. What was the role and purpose of the Bosnian name?
In a medieval Blitzkrieg, during May and June, after almost eight decades of systematic devastation and conquest, the Turks have conquered Bosnian kingdom.
After they have promised a fifteen years long armistice to the emissaries of the Bosnian king Stjepan Tomasevic, huge Turkish army numbering about 150.000 men has during the first half of May departed from Drinopolje and through Skoplje, Kosovo and Sjenica slashed through the borders of Bosnian kingdom, and through Podrinje has broken into the central and upper Bosnia. The fortress of Bobovac, besieged on May 19, has capitulated to the Turks on May 21. In front of the danger from the Turks, king Tomasevic has sheltered himself in Jajce, wherefrom he started for Croatia, hoping to raise some help, but he was besieged in Kljuc on the river of Sana.
There exists a significant number of Croatian Cyrillic codices, chronicles, healers' pharmacopoeias, registers of births, testaments, personal correspondence etc. Especially important is the Poljice Statute of the small Principality in the neighbourhood of Split (1440).
|Here is a Croatian Cyrillic testament of R. Vladisic written in the famous fortress of Klis near Split in 1436 (transcription from 1448).|
Gabrijel Jurkic, the first academic painter from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Č, č-as the "ch" in "check
Ć, ć-no English equivalent. Place the tip of the tongue behind the lower front teeth and try to produce a "mixed sound" between the "ch" of "check" and the "t" (actually "ty") of British English "tune". As it were, a “soft” č.
DŽ, dž-as the "j" in English "jar"
Đ, đ-no English equivalent. Place the tip of the tongue behind the lower front teeth and try to produce a "mixed sound" between the "j" of "jar" and the "d" (actually "dy") of British English "duke". A “soft” dž.
LJ, lj-as the British English pronunciation of the "lli" in "million", i.e., with a "clear 'l'" followed by a short "y"-sound
NJ, nj-as the "ni" in "onion", i.e., an "n" followed by a short "y"-sound
Š, š-as the "sh" in English "ship"
Ž, ž-as the "s" in "measure" or the "zh" in "Zhivago"
Early Medieval Age: Birth of a Region (600 - 1180)
VII. cent. -1463
The arrival and settling of Slavs in the region of the present-day Bosnia-Herzegovina. During that period, the Slavs have, following the assimilation of Celts, Illyrians and Romans they\'ve came across, accepted Christianity and, along with the developement of their own cultural and artistic expression, formed political institutions and, finally, their own state.
Yugoslavia as the federal communist state.
The basic characteristics of this period are:
- absolute authority of the Communist Party, especially President Tito and his subordinate inner circle
- many social, political and economical reforms ("self-menangement"), whereby they wanted to make the country functional and people "satisfied" - not questioning the ruling communist dogma
- steering a middle course after the break with Stalin's SSSR, Yugoslavia became a "ratified country" for both opposite blocks as a desirable buffer zone. Also, it became unprecedentedly involved in the international affairs, especially through the Non-alignment movement.
- development from the rigid centralism to the growing federalism and confederalism of the state in oreder to to alleviate interethnic tensions and to preserve the country in tolerably functional form. Culmination of such attempts is the 1974 Constitution.
- after the death of Tito, the absolute arbiter, the Presidency came to power. The Presidency, consisting of the representatives of all 6 republics and 2 autonomous provinces rotated the leadership every year to avoid possible ethnic/national majorization
- under the pressure of great financial obligations, old-fashioned economical and political organization as well as radicalization of the inter-ethnic/national relationships caused by the great Serbian movement, Yugoslavia fell to pieces in 1991.
Croatian Glagolitic sources related to Bosnia and Herzegovina (see also [Damjanovic, Glagoljica na podrucju danasnje BiH]):