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Ivo Andric - Croatian Nobel prize winners for literature

CROATIAN NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS  BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA HAS TWO CROATS AS NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS:      * IVO ANDRIC FOR LITERATURE,

Ivo Andrić

Born     October 9, 1892(1892-10-09) Dolac (village near Travnik), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austro-Hungarian Empire
Died     March 13, 1975 (aged 82) Belgrade, SFR Yugoslavia (now Serbia)
Occupation     Novelist, short story writer
Nationality     Croatian [1]
Notable award(s)     Nobel Prize in Literature (1961)

Ivo Andrić (October 9, 1892 – March 13, 1975) was a Croatian novelist[1], short story writer, and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature[3]. His writings dealt mainly with life in his native Bosnia under the Ottoman Empire. His native house in Travnik has been transformed into a Museum, and his Belgrade flat on Andrićev Venac host the Museum of Ivo Andrić, and Ivo Andrić Foundation.

Contents

Biography

CROATIAN NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS  BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA HAS TWO CROATS AS NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS:      * IVO ANDRIC FOR LITERATURE,

Andrić was born on October 9, 1892, in Travnik, mahala Zenjak number 9, Bosnia and Herzegovina, then part of the Ottoman Empire, under control of Austria-Hungary. Originally named Ivan, he became known by the diminutive Ivo. When Andrić was two years old, his father Antun died. Because his mother Katarina was too poor to support him, he was raised by his mother's family in the eastern Bosnian town of Višegrad on the river Drina. There he saw the Ottoman Bridge, later made famous in his novel The Bridge on the Drina (Na Drini ćuprija).[4]

Andrić attended the Jesuit gymnasium in Travnik, followed by Sarajevo's gymnasium and later the universities in Zagreb (1912 and 1918), Vienna (1913), Kraków (1914), and Graz (PhD, 1924).[5] Because of his political activities, Andrić was imprisoned by the Austrian government during World War I (first in Maribor and later in the Doboj detention camp) alongside other pro-Yugoslav civilians.

Ivo Andric, (studied in Zagreb) for literature, 1961. He was a Croat born in Bosnia and educated by the Bosnian Jesuits. His books reflect the interference of different cultures existing in Bosnia.

His father Antun, who died during Andric's earliest childhood, was attendant of the Jesuit gymnasium in Travnik, Bosnia, and his mother was a housewife. Ivo Andrich inscribed the same Jesuit gymnasium, and then went to the Sarajevo gymnasium where he was the stipendist of the Croatian Cultural Society Napredak (which means "progress", Croatian cultural society in Bosia and Herzegovina). [2]

Then he attended the Faculty of philosophy in Zagreb, Croatian capital. In 1919, after his studies in Zagreb, he moved to Belgrade, where he started his career as a diplomat, working in Rome, Bucharest, Trieste, Graz (where he defended his thesis), Marseille, Paris, Madrid, Bruxelles, Geneve, and finally occupied the position of ambassador of the very young Yugoslav state in Berlin (1939-1941).

Under the newly-formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) Andrić became a civil servant, first in the Ministry of Faiths and then the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, where he pursued a successful diplomatic career as Deputy Foreign Minister and later Ambassador to Germany. He was also a delegate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia at the 19th, 21st, 23rd and 24th sessions of the League of Nations.[6] Andrić greatly opposed the movement of Stjepan Radić, the president of the Croatian Peasant Party. His ambassadorship ended in 1941 after the German invasion of Yugoslavia. During World War II, Andrić lived quietly in Belgrade, completing the three of his most famous novels which were published in 1945, including The Bridge on the Drina.

After the war, Andrić spent most of his time living in Belgrade and held a number of ceremonial posts in the new Communist government of Yugoslavia. He was also a member of the Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1961, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country". He donated all of the prize money towards the improvement of libraries in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He was member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.[7]

Following the death of his wife, Milica Babic-Andric, in 1968, he began reducing his public activities. In 1969 he was elected an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[8] As time went by, he became increasingly ill and eventually died on March 13, 1975, in Belgrade, SR Serbia, SFR Yugoslavia.

He was buried in Belgrade Novo groblje cemetery, in Alley of Distinguished Citizens.[9]

Works


The material for his works was mainly drawn from the history, folklore, and culture of his native Bosnia.

* The Bridge on the Drina
* Bosnian Chronicle[1] (a.k.a. Chronicles of Travnik)
* The Woman from Sarajevo[2]

Those were all released in 1945 and written during World War II while Andrić was living quietly in Belgrade. They are often referred to as the "Bosnian trilogy" because they were released at the same time and had been written near together in time. However, they are connected only thematically -— they are indeed three completely different works.

Some of his other popular works include:

* Ex Ponto[3] (1918)
* Unrest[4] (Nemiri, 1920)
* The Journey of Alija Đerzelez[5] (Put Alije Đerzeleza, 1920)
* The Vizier's Elephant[6] (Priča o vezirovom slonu, 1948; trans. 1962)
* The Damned Yard[7] (Prokleta avlija, 1954)
* Omer-Pasha Latas[8] (Omerpaša Latas, released posthumously in 1977)

His manuscripts and literary legacy is in custody of the Foundation he founded (Fondacija Ive Andrica) and Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts,[10]

Some claim that the works of Ivo Andric particularly his thesis "The Development of Spiritual Life in Bosnia under the Influence of Turkish Rule" have resurfaced as a source of anti-Muslim prejudice in Serbian cultural discourse.[11]

Classification

As far as standard language is considered, he wrote in Serbo-Croatian; prior to World War I he had been a believer in Yugoslav unity and Pan-slavism. However, it must be mentioned that Serbo-Croatian used to have two different subtypes - the Eastern standardization (spread in Montenegro, Serbia and partly in Bosnia and Herzegovina), and Western standardization that is common in Croatia and partly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Andrić first used and wrote Serbo-Croatian Croatian form (Western).[12]

There was also a more specific, and more fundamental, divide—that between ekavian and ijekavian standards of then-Serbo-Croat -- Andrić wrote in the ijekavian (standard in both Western standard Croatia, middle-of-the-road standard Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Eastern standard Montenegro).

CROATIAN NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS  BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA HAS TWO CROATS AS NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS:      * IVO ANDRIC FOR LITERATURE, DURING HIS STUDIES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF KRAKOW, POLAND, IVO ANDRIC FILLED IN HIS MATRICULATION FORM AS FOLLOWS:  * RELIGION - ROMAN CATHOLIC (RELIGIA KAT.), * NATIONALITY - CROATIAN (NARODOWOSC CHORWAT).  THIS FORM HAS BEEN REPRODUCED IN BIOGRAPHICAL BOOK PUBLISHED IN 1978 BY VJENCESLAV TOPALOVIC, AT THAT TIME CURATOR OF THE TRAVNIK MUSEUM, BOSNIA.

During his studies at the University of Krakow, Poland, Ivo Andric filled in his matriculation form as follows:

  • religion - Roman Catholic (Religia Kat.),
  • nationality - Croatian (Narodowosc Chorwat).

This form has been reproduced in biographical book published in 1978 by Vjenceslav Topalovic, at that time curator of the Travnik museum, Bosnia. Almost the whole edition has been ordered by some Belgrade institutions and destroyed. Very few copies remained. (Information by dr. R.Glibo).[13]

References

1. ^ www.CroatianHistory.net
2. ^ www.CroatianHistory.net
3. ^ Kaplan, Robert D. (1993-04-18). "A Reader's Guide to the Balkans". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE7D91531F93BA25757C0A965958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all.
4. ^ Richard C. Frucht (ed.), Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture (ABC-CLIO, 2005: ISBN 1576078000), p. 568.
5. ^ "Andrić, Ivo," Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2005.
6. ^ List of Assembly Delegates and Substitutes - (A) from League of Nations Photo Archive at the University of Indiana
7. ^ SANU
8. ^ Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine, Honorary members.
9. ^ Ivo Andrić, Novo Groblje
10. ^ Ivo Andrić Foundation, Work.
11. ^ Ammiel Alcalay, Memories of Our Future: Selected Essays 1982-1999 (City Lights Books, 1999: ISBN 0872863603), p. 233.
12. ^ "Ivo Andrić". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2010. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/24035/Ivo-Andric. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
13. ^   www.CroatianHistory.net

 

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