Bagpipes (gajde) are a class of instrument that are made of tanned goatskin. The gajdunica, naška, roga, dulca and trubnja (bordun, burdon, and drone) are made of wood. Inside the bagpipes, in the chanter and drone are one-way valves made of reed or elder tree wood. In the chanter (gajdunica) there are two reeds, which is typical of all old Croatian instruments with skin, except for the duda, which has three or four reeds in its chanter. In the drone (trubanj or bordun) there is one reed that gives the low, basic sound of the bagpipes. The wooden parts often have tin-inlay decorations.
The duda is a lovely old instrument. It is a type of bagpipe that has almost completely disappeared from our area. But not so long ago the duda was played in Bilogora, Moslavina, Posavina, Turopolje, Podravina, Međimurje and Croatian Zagorje. The duda is very similar to bagpipes, but it is distinguished by the number of reeds in the chanter, by the final sound, and by the manner and technique of playing. There are three or four reeds in the duda pipe made of elder tree wood or reed. Bagpipes have only two reeds. Because of the greater number of reeds, the sound of the duda is richer and very specific. The duda is most often made in the key of F, although there are dudas in the keys of E, G, and even in the key of A (although this is very rare). In Croatia there are two types of duda: four-part and five-part dudas, the latter found in Podravina. The difference between them is in the number of reeds in the pipe, and therefore, also in the playing technique.
Craoatian Bagpipes - Four-part dudas
|Four-part dudas (dudas from Bilogora) have three reeds in their pipe. If we include the reed in the drone, such dudas can play four different tones simultaneously and this is the reason they are called four-part dudas, unlike bagpipes that are three-voice. The sounds that can be played on a duda are in the key of F: F, G, A, B flat, C and D (the first reed is also called petak, or the melodious chanter), keynote F and the fourth C (the second reed, i.e. the right or the accompanying chanter) and the octave F (third reed or thumb position). The drone (bordun) always produces a deep keynote F.|
The gunge is a completely forgotten instrument. We only have information that it was once made and played on the island Pag. It was made from two pieces of reed (double chanters with reeds), connected with resined thread.