Craoatian Bagpipes - Five-part dudas (dudas from Podravina)
|Dudas from Podravina have four reeds in their pipe. With the addition of a reed in the drone, they are considered five-part dudas because five different sounds can be produced simultaneously. The first reed (petak, or the melodious chanter) produces the tones of G, A, B flat, C and D, the second reed (samac, or loner) produces only the keynote F, the third reed (malčenjak) produces only the fourth C, and the fourth reed only the octave F.
The sopila (or roženica, as a similar instrument is called in Istria) is an old traditional instrument similar to today’s oboe. It has been preserved in the areas of Kvarner, Kastav, Vinodol, and on the island of Krk.
The sopila is a descendant of the old European shawm, an instrument that developed near the end of the Middle Ages and whose main characteristics were double reeds and a conical bore along the entire instrument. This primitive instrument disappeared completely from European music around 1700, when it was replaced by the much more refined oboe. The old shawm was still to be found here and there in Europe, but only as a folk instrument (e.g. in the Swiss Alps, in Abruzzi, Italy, where it is called the piffero, and, of course, in Istria and the Kvarner region of Croatia).
The šurle, together with the roženica (sopila) and mih is a typical Istrian instrument. The šurle is actually two separate pipes of wood that are connected at the top into a didak, kutao or barrel, through which air is blown and which also protects the reeds.